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R-79

AMNTK Sojuz, Rusko

R-79V-300 je prvním motorem na světě s vektorováním tahu a přídavným spalováním zároveň. Toto spojení umožňovalo letounu, do kterého by byl tento motor instalován, jak vzlétat a přistávat vertikálně, tak i lety nadvukovou rychlostí. Vývoj motoru začal patrně v roce 1977 pod vedením V. A. Kobčjenka, neprobíhal však zcela podle plánu, zálet letounu musel být o několik let posunut. Až koncem roku 1984 byl motor připraven na zkoušky. Jak-41M (později přeznačený na Jak-141) vzlétl poprvé 9. 3. 1987. V roce 1991 byl ale projekt letounu ukončen, práce na motoru však pokračovaly. V roce 1993 dovršilo 12 testovaných motorů 3500 hodin pozemních zkoušek. Jiný zdroj uvádí, že do podzimu roku 1992 bylo postaveno celkem 26 motorů, ze kterých 16 bylo připraveno pro testování na letounu, z toho ne všechny byly nakonec na letoun instalovány.

Rotory nízkotlakého (údajně 1-stup.) a vysokotlakého (údajně 6-stup.) kompresoru jsou protiběžné, odolné proti nestabilnímu proudění vzduchu na vstupu. Z vysokotlakého kompresoru je odebírán vzduch pro řídící trysky letounu. Zcela nově vyvinutá tryska složená ze dvou zkosených sekcí vychyluje proud spalin o 62 a 95° směrem dolů, a to při všech pracovních režimech motoru. Jak přibližně funguje tato tryska můžete vidět na tomto videu amerického letounu F-35. Tryska je určena pouze pro vzlet a přistání, nikoliv ke zlepšení manévrovacích schopností při dopředném letu. Její životnost je nejméně 1500 cyklů překlopení. Systém řízení motoru je elektronický s hydromechanickou zálohou.

Vývoj R-79 dále vedl k modernější verzi R-79M s tahem 18 000 kp, řídícím systémem FADEC, novou spalovací komorou a osově souměrnou (?) tryskou s vektorováním ve svislé rovině o ± 20°. S motorem se počítalo v první etapě plánování letounu S.22, ze kterého později vznikl experimentální letounu S-37.

Další konstrukcí, která byla založena na R-79V-300, je motor R-179-300 v tahové třídě 20 tun, svými charakteristikami patří mezi motory generace 4+, systém autokontroly přibližuje R-179-300 motorům 5. generace. Motor byl vyvíjen v polovině 90. let, použití se předpokládalo na letounech různých typů a určení - od lehkých bojových až po výkonné stíhače, pravděpodobně primárně kanceláře Suchoj. R-179-300 s plochou vektorovatelnou trysku s obracečem tahu je přímým konkurentem motorů AL-41F například u letounů S-37 (Su-47).

VK-21 je modifikace R-179-300 bez přídavného spalování v tahové třídě 12 tun. Motor má údajně prakticky stejnou kilometrickou spotřebu při podzvukovém i nadzvukovém cestovním režimu a zdá se tak být vhodný pro novou (druhou) generaci nadzvukových dopravních letounů o hmotnosti 40 - 110 tun. VK-21 byl vyvinut kolem roku 1999.

R134-300 je dvouproudový motor bez přídavného spalování pro nadzvukové civilní letouny s cestovní rychlostí M=2,0. Parametricky se zdá být velmi blízký VK-21, možná jde o ten samý tey jen s jiným označením.

CHARAKTERISTIKY MOTORŮ R-79V-300, R-179-300 a VK-21

Typ - R-79V-300 R-179-300 VK-21 R-134-300 *
Tah - maximální (H=0, M=0) kp     11300 11000
- přídavné spalování (H=0, M=0) kp 15680 20400    
- cestovní (H=11km, M=0,9) kp     2000  
SFC - maximální (H=0, M=0) kg.kp-1.h-1 0,647 0,628    
- přídavné spalování (H=0, M=0) kg.kp-1.h-1 1.66* 1,85    
- cestovní (H=16km, M=2) kg.kp-1.h-1     1,14 1,14
- cestovní (H=11km, M=0,9) kg.kp-1.h-1     0,835  
Průtokové množství vzduchu kg.s-1 180 180 180 179
Celkové stlačení za kompresorem - 22 25 22,4 22,4
Obtokový poměr - 0,81 0,73 0,81 0,81
Teplota plynů před turbínou °C 1357*   1327 1327
Maximální průměr mm 1720
1370*
1750 1250 1250
Délka mm 5230
4780*
5610 4640 5320
Hmotnost kg 2750 2880 2350  
Suchá hmotnost kg 1850*     1900
  • Hodnoty s hvězdičkou jsou se stránek výrobce.
  • Zdroj airwar.ru udává u R-79V-300 maximální tah 14 000 kp (což je nereálná hodnota), nominální tah 11 000 kp, teplotu plynů před turbínou 1327°C a průměr ventilátoru 1100 mm. Pravdivost těchto informací není ověřena. Jiný zdroj uvádí maximální neforsážní tah 9 000 kp.
  • Skutečné suché hmotnosti se budou patrně pohybovat kolem hodnot 1800 kg, motor R-179 má totiž mít podle některých zdrojů poměr tahu ke hmotnosti 11-12.
  • U VK-21 je při nadzvukovém cestovním režimu (H=16km, M=2) stanoven tah vztažený na množství protékajícího vzduchu motorem na hodnotu přes 30 kp/(kg/s). Konečný tah by se při tomto režimu mohl pohybovat lehce pod 2 000 kp.
  • Tah R-179-300 je někde v rozmezí 20 000 - 21 000 kp.
  • Všechny údaje k R-134-300 jsou z oficiálního webu výrobce.

Některé zdroje použitých informací a obrázků:

Komentáře k této stránce
2017-11-27 07:40:49
BIJAN
Hi,
Please inform me more about the R-179M-300 engine.
And also the modifications without afterburner for commercial jets.
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Pharmacy technicians support the work of pharmacists and other health professionals by performing a variety of pharmacy related functions, including dispensing prescription drugs and other medical devices to patients and instructing on their use. They may also perform administrative duties in pharmaceutical practice, such as reviewing prescription requests with medics's offices and insurance companies to ensure correct medications are provided and payment is received.,
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The scope of pharmacy practice includes more traditional roles such as compounding and dispensing medications, and it also includes more modern services related to health care, including clinical services, reviewing medications for safety and efficacy, and providing drug information. Pharmacists, therefore, are the experts on drug therapy and are the primary health professionals who optimize use of medication for the benefit of the patients.,
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2put39 The scope of pharmacy practice includes more traditional roles such as compounding and dispensing medications, and it also includes more modern services related to health care, including clinical services, reviewing medications for safety and efficacy, and providing drug information. Pharmacists, therefore, are the experts on drug therapy and are the primary health professionals who optimize use of medication for the benefit of the patients.,
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The main principle of consultant pharmacy is developed by Hepler and Strand in 1990.[19][20],
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Since about the year 2000, a growing number of Internet pharmacies have been established worldwide. Many of these pharmacies are similar to community pharmacies, and in fact, many of them are actually operated by brick-and-mortar community pharmacies that serve consumers online and those that walk in their door. The primary difference is the method by which the medications are requested and received. Some customers consider this to be more convenient and private method rather than traveling to a community drugstore where another customer might overhear about the drugs that they take. Internet pharmacies (also known as online pharmacies) are also recommended to some patients by their physicians if they are homebound.,
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In the United States, there has been a push to legalize importation of medications from Canada and other countries, in order to reduce consumer costs. While in most cases importation of prescription medications violates Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations and federal laws, enforcement is generally targeted at international drug suppliers, rather than consumers. There is no known case of any U.S. citizens buying Canadian drugs for personal use with a prescription, who has ever been charged by authorities.,
2016-02-18 23:21:58
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In Europe pharmacy-like shops began to appear during the 12th century. In 1240 emperor Frederic II issued a decree by which the physician's and the apothecary's professions were separated.[12] The first pharmacy in Europe (still working) was opened in 1241 in Trier, Germany.[citation needed],
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Symbols[edit],
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Rod of Asclepius, the internationally recognised symbol of medicine,
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Health care,
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f8tbHd The earliest known Chinese manual on materia medica is the Shennong Bencao Jing (The Divine Farmer's Herb-Root Classic), dating back to the 1st century AD. It was compiled during the Han dynasty and was attributed to the mythical Shennong. Earlier literature included lists of prescriptions for specific ailments, exemplified by a manuscript "Recipes for 52 Ailments", found in the Mawangdui tomb, sealed in 168 BC. Further details on Chinese pharmacy can be found in the Pharmacy in China article.,
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Professional,
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Pharmacy,
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6zQkIy 4.1 Community pharmacy,
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Community portal,
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Because of the complexity of medications including specific indications, effectiveness of treatment regimens, safety of medications (i.e., drug interactions) and patient compliance issues (in the hospital and at home) many pharmacists practicing in hospitals gain more education and training after pharmacy school through a pharmacy practice residency and sometimes followed by another residency in a specific area. Those pharmacists are often referred to as clinical pharmacists and they often specialize in various disciplines of pharmacy. For example, there are pharmacists who specialize in hematology/oncology, HIV/AIDS, infectious disease, critical care, emergency medicine, toxicology, nuclear pharmacy, pain management, psychiatry, anti-coagulation clinics, herbal medicine, neurology/epilepsy management, pediatrics, neonatal pharmacists and more.,
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Pharmacy residency,
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Authority control ,
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Another form of compounding is by mixing different strengths (g,mg,mcg) of capsules or tablets to yield the desired amount of medication indicated by the physician, physician assistant, Nurse Practitioner, or clinical pharmacist practitioner. This form of compounding is found at community or hospital pharmacies or in-home administration therapy.,
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5APwwb Afrikaans,
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Internet pharmacy[edit],
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This shift has already commenced in some countries; for instance, pharmacists in Australia receive remuneration from the Australian Government for conducting comprehensive Home Medicines Reviews. In Canada, pharmacists in certain provinces have limited prescribing rights (as in Alberta and British Columbia) or are remunerated by their provincial government for expanded services such as medications reviews (Medschecks in Ontario). In the United Kingdom, pharmacists who undertake additional training are obtaining prescribing rights and this is because of pharmacy education. They are also being paid for by the government for medicine use reviews. In Scotland the pharmacist can write prescriptions for Scottish registered patients of their regular medications, for the majority of drugs, except for controlled drugs, when the patient is unable to see their doctor, as could happen if they are away from home or the doctor is unavailable. In the United States, pharmaceutical care or clinical pharmacy has had an evolving influence on the practice of pharmacy.[32] Moreover, the Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm. D.) degree is now required before entering practice and some pharmacists now complete one or two years of residency or fellowship training following graduation. In addition, consultant pharmacists, who traditionally operated primarily in nursing homes are now expanding into direct consultation with patients, under the banner of "senior care pharmacy."[33],
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^ Jump up to: a b Hadzovic, S (1997). "Pharmacy and the great contribution of Arab-Islamic science to its development". Medicinski Arhiv (in Croatian) 51 (1-2): 47–50. ISSN 0025-8083. OCLC 32564530. PMID 9324574.,
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The reason for the majority rule is the high risk of a conflict of interest and/or the avoidance of absolute powers. Otherwise, the physician has a financial self-interest in "diagnosing" as many conditions as possible, and in exaggerating their seriousness, because he or she can then sell more medications to the patient. Such self-interest directly conflicts with the patient's interest in obtaining cost-effective medication and avoiding the unnecessary use of medication that may have side-effects. This system reflects much similarity to the checks and balances system of the U.S. and many other governments.[citation needed],
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2016-02-17 11:13:36
name
In the coming decades, pharmacists are expected to become more integral within the health care system. Rather than simply dispensing medication, pharmacists are increasingly expected to be compensated for their patient care skills.[30] In particular, Medication Therapy Management (MTM) includes the clinical services that pharmacists can provide for their patients. Such services include the thorough analysis of all medication (prescription, non-prescription, and herbals) currently being taken by an individual. The result is a reconciliation of medication and patient education resulting in increased patient health outcomes and decreased costs to the health care system.[31],
2013-06-27 17:30:26
Bijan
Hi,
Please inform me more about the R-179M-300 engine.

Kind Regards
email: injectlogix@aol.com

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